By Muriel Norde
Grammaticalization is a well-attested strategy of linguistic swap during which a lexical merchandise turns into a functionality observe, that could be additional diminished to a clitic or affix. Proponents of the universality of grammaticalization have often argued that it's unidirectional and feature therefore chanced on it a useful gizmo in linguistic reconstruction. during this booklet Professor Norde indicates that adjust is reversible on all degrees: semantic, morphological, syntactic, and phonological. thus, the alleged unidirectionality of grammaticalization isn't a competent reconstructional device, whether degrammaticalization is an extraordinary phenomenon.Degrammaticalization, she argues, is basically diversified from grammaticalization: it always includes a unmarried switch, examples being shifts from affix to clitic, or from functionality be aware to lexical merchandise. And the place grammaticalization may be visible as a technique, degrammaticalization is usually the derivative of different adjustments. however, she indicates that it may be defined, like grammaticalization, in a principled approach, so as to identify even if a metamorphosis in a note has been from extra to much less grammatical or vice versa, and the phases during which it has turn into so. utilizing facts from diverse languages she constructs a typology of degrammaticalization adjustments. She explains why degrammaticalization is so infrequent and why a few linguists have such strongly destructive emotions in regards to the hazard of its life. She provides to the certainty of grammaticalization and makes an important contribution to equipment of linguistic reconstruction and the research of language switch. She writes sincerely, aiming to be understood through complex undergraduate scholars in addition to beautiful to students and graduate researchers in ancient linguistics.
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Extra info for Degrammaticalization
Enger convincingly argues that many Old Norse st-verbs are to be considered derived forms rather than inXected ones, which implies an unusual pathway, namely free form > clitic > derivational suYx > inXectional suYx. Another case in point is the Modern Finnish conjunction kun, which has both temporal and causal meaning. On the basis of this homonymy alone, Traugott and Ko¨nig (1991: 197) and Heine and Kuteva (2002: 291, quoting Traugott and Ko¨nig) conclude that the causal meaning was inferred from the temporal one.
E. the Holy Trinity) one shall indeed proclaim one deity’ Apart from these independent uses, heit/heid is attested in compounds such as magadheit ‘position, rank of a young girl’. From such compounds, the step towards derivation is a relatively minor one. Thus, a word such as uuı´zentheit (‘knowing’-heit) is ambivalent between a compound meaning ‘knowing person’ and a derivation meaning ‘knowledge, consciousness’. In the course of the OHG period, derivational -heit becomes increasingly frequent, at the expense of heit as a compound member, and by the Middle High German (MHG)12 period, the latter usage had largely disappeared.
1). f. 21 An evaluation of the diVerences and similarities between pragmaticalization and (other types of) grammaticalization has given rise to several strategies. The Wrst is to consider the development of discourse markers as a process entirely separate from grammaticalization, which is the position taken in Aijmer (1997), and Ocampo (2006). Another option is to consider pragmaticalization as one of two subtypes of grammaticalization, as proposed in Wischer (2000) who distinguishes between ‘Grammaticalization I’ (movement towards morphology) and ‘Grammaticalization II’ (movement towards 21 This may seem to contradict Brinton and Traugott’s claim with respect to example (20c) that discourse markers do exhibit fusion.