By Donald A. Ritchie
In 60 essays, this quantity profiles American reporters from colonial instances to the present--reporters, editors, publishers, photographers, and broadcasters--whose careers mirrored significant advancements of their career and within the historical past of the U.S.. In a speech to Newsweek correspondents in 1963, writer Philip Graham defined journalism as "the first tough draft of history." those reporters faced and helped to form the dialogue of significant matters and occasions in American background, from the yankee revolution via abolition, westward enlargement, the Civil conflict, the civil rights circulate, immigration, and the women's move, in addition to significant constitutional concerns regarding the 1st modification defense of freedom of the clicking. Biographies of recognized newshounds, from Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine to Walter Cronkite and Rupert Murdoch, seem along a few who could be much less usual, equivalent to Elias Boudinot, founding father of the 1st Cherokee language newspaper; Abraham Cahan, editor of the Jewish day-by-day ahead; and Daniel Craig, who within the 1830s used service pigeons to ferry the inside track. different matters comprise Margaret eco-friendly Draper, the innovative printer; Claude Barnett, founding father of the linked Negro Press; photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White; battle correspondent Ernie Pyle; and Allen Neuharth, founding father of united states this present day. Illustrations, truth bins, and quotations from the topics themselves make this quantity an critical reference for college kids of yank background in addition to a desirable learn. newshounds profiled comprise: Horace Greeley Frederick Douglass Mark Twain Thomas Nast Joseph Pulitzer Nellie Bly William Randolph Hearst Ida Wells-Barnett H. L. Mencken Dorothy Thompson Walter Winchell crimson Smith Edward R. Murrow Walter Cronkite Bernard Shaw Cokie Roberts Manuel de Dios Unanue and lots of extra
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Fenno claimed 1,000 subscribers in different states. He was also sending out 120 copies to postmasters and other newspapers for exchange and reprinting. However, the Gazette could never have survived without political patronage. In 1793, when he needed money to continue publishing, Fenno went to Hamilton for a $2,000 loan. The Federalists considered it in their best interests to keep his paper in business. Much against his nature, Fenno was doing editorial battle with such adversaries as Philip Freneau’s National Gazette and Benjamin Bache’s Aurora.
He responded poorly to such criticism and had little talent for tirades. ” At times the battle spread beyond the pages of the newspapers. During one encounter on a Philadelphia street, the young, hottempered Benjamin Bache beat the massive John Fenno with his cane. During the summer of 1792, while Washington pondered whether to run for a second term as President, the emerging opposition party known as Republicans feared that Hamilton might succeed to the Presidency. Freneau’s National Gazette launched a fierce attack on Hamilton and his economic programs.
That same year the family bought a 1,000-acre estate near Monmouth, New Jersey, and built a summer home they named Mount Pleasant. Philip Freneau grew up surrounded by books and art and received first-rate schooling. But in the 1760s, changing British policy, including higher taxes under the Stamp Act, caused an economic crisis in the colonies. In 1767, when Philip was 13, his father died. He had been deeply in debt and hounded by creditors. His father’s fate and his family’s uncertain finances left the young Freneau suspicious of creditors and other “moneyed interests,” attitudes that would strongly influence his later politics and editorial writing.