A reference grammar of Kunuz Nubian by Ahmed Sokarno Abdel-Hafiz

By Ahmed Sokarno Abdel-Hafiz

It is a grammar of Kunuz Nubian (KN), an japanese Sudanic language spoken in Southern Egypt. it's the first grammar ever written in this language. The components coated within the examine are phonology, morphology and syntax. The bankruptcy on phonology introduces KN phonemic stock that is by way of the description of the syllable constitution, pressure, phonetactics and phonological ideas. The bankruptcy on morphology indicates that the morphemes that take part within the composition of KN observe periods are categorized into conceptual different types. those different types are extra divided into kinds: derivational and inflectional. The bankruptcy on KN syntax starts off with simple evidence akin to note order, verb contract and reflexives. the kinds of buildings mentioned contain morphosyntactic principles, complementations and subordinates. The grammar additionally contains texts and a thesaurus of KN.

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The topmost layer of the lamina propria (the mucosa) is very squishy and stretchable in all directions; the middle layer can be stretched along the anterior-posterior axis, and the deepest layer resists stretching altogether. Below the cover lies the body of the vocal 5 Pronounced a-RIT-ten-oid. Three other cartilages are also considered part of the larynx, but these have little apparent function in phonation. The epiglottis is a leaf- or tongue-shaped cartilage that folds over the opening of the larynx to seal it completely (for example, during swallowing).

Descriptions of the mucosal wave usually focus on its propagation along the superior surface of the vocal folds, which is the aspect that is visible when looking from above (as in the video examples). This segment of the wave attenuates quickly as it travels outward away from the glottis. 12 The movements of the vocal folds across the airway for a single cycle of phonation. indd 46 1/13/2011 5:28:31 PM Producing a Voice and Controlling Its Sound 47 closing actually occur. 12 suggests, the wave initiates there, and travels a significant distance along this medial surface before “breaking” across the top of the folds.

A) Changes in airflow over time for a normal male voice. (b) Spectrum of the waveform in panel a. (c) Changes in airflow over time for a normal female voice. (d) Spectrum of the voice in panel c. Units on the y axes are arbitrary. indd 48 1/13/2011 5:28:32 PM Producing a Voice and Controlling Its Sound 49 The panels to the right of the figure show the harmonic energy generated by each of these voice sources (the source spectra). The differences in harmonic spacing in the two spectra are due to differences in F0 for the male voice (about 115 Hz) and the female voice (about 220 Hz).

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