A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher by John F. Hoffecker

By John F. Hoffecker

For the 1st time lately, we now have a synthesis of the most recent considering and discoveries by way of a more youthful pupil with an authoritative seize of the topic. This booklet is a crucial contribution to the final literature of human prehistory, special for its accomplished insurance of the circumpolar regions.—Brian Fagan, writer of The lengthy summer time: How weather replaced Civilization

"A uniquely authoritative, hugely readable, and well-illustrated account of ways stone-age humans controlled to colonize the some distance North."—Richard G. Klein, Stanford University

Early people didn't easily waft northward from their African origins as their talents to deal with cooler climates advanced. The preliminary cost of areas like Europe and northern Asia, in addition to the later circulate into the Arctic and the Americas, truly happened in rather quick bursts of growth. A Prehistory of the North is the 1st full-length research to inform the complicated tale, spanning nearly million years, of the way people inhabited many of the coldest areas on earth.

In an account wealthy with illustrations, John Hoffecker lines the background of anatomical diversifications, vitamin changes, and technological advancements, resembling garments and guard, which allowed people the continuing skill to push the limits in their habitation. The booklet concludes by way of exhibiting how within the previous few thousand years, peoples dwelling within the circumpolar zone—with the exception of western and significant Siberia—developed a thriving maritime economy.

Written in nontechnical language, A Prehistory of the North offers compelling new insights and beneficial info for pros and scholars.

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The oldest known representatives of the hominid family are the australopithecines, who inhabited Africa until roughly 1 million years ago. At present, the earliest remains— assigned to Ardipithecus ramidus —are found in East Africa and are dated to slightly more than 5 million years ago. 4. Major australopithecine sites in East and southern Africa. Inset: skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis (“Lucy”). overall body size). They retained many other apelike features, and their geographic range was almost as limited as that of the modern chimpanzee.

A partial but rather distorted cranium, along with two mandible fragments and several other bones and teeth, has been recovered from Arago in southern France. This is one of the few known cave occupations from this time period and it probably dates to about 400,000 years ago (thus younger than Boxgrove and the Heidelberg jaw). 25 As noted in the preceding chapter, modern peoples of the Arctic tend to possess greater body weight and shortened limbs. This reflects a general pattern observed by nineteenth-century naturalists among northern representatives of warm-blooded animals.

21 Human Origins Humans were once thought to have evolved as part of the great expansion and diversification of hominoids during the mid-Miocene. As already noted, the biomolecular research that began in the 1960s eventually forced a reassessment of this view. It is now clear that the earliest humans appeared at the close of the Miocene, when hominoids were suffering widespread extinction and range contraction. Humans became one of the few surviving hominoid lineages by evolving a highly unusual feature that allowed them to occupy an ecological niche in a tropical woodland environment.

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