By Marc Van de Mieroop
This e-book offers a transparent, concise background of the extreme multicultural civilizations of the traditional close to East. Bestselling narrative of the complicated heritage of the traditional close to EastAddresses political, social, and cultural developmentsContains in-depth dialogue of key texts and assets, together with the Bible and the Epic of GilgameshIncludes various maps, illustrations, and a variety of close to jap texts in translationIntegrates new learn, and drastically expands the courses to additional studying for this moment variation
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Additional resources for A History of the Ancient Near East, ca 3000-323 BC, 2nd edition (Blackwell History of the Ancient World)
These societies were not urbanized, at least in comparison with southern Mesopotamia. Several settlements that later developed into important centers originated at this time, but truly urban characteristics were absent until about 2600. Only then do walled cities and dense habitation reappear in such areas as the Habur Valley. While southern influence may have been a catalyst in this late urban development, it was an indigenous process and there are clear differences from the south. The agricultural regime of northern Mesopotamia and Syria differs from that in the south in that it relies on rainfall rather than riverain irrigation for growing cereal crops.
Archaeological material from eastern Arabia and Oman shows a great deal of contact with Babylonia. Many pottery vessels were Mesopotamian imports, but these were found within archaeological contexts that are not at all Mesopotamian in character. In Oman, for instance, numerous circular tombs with stones piled over them were constructed in this period, an entirely un-Mesopotamian practice. So we see here a kind of interaction different from that attested in the Uruk period: at that time the Babylonians seem to have traded through colonies, while in the Early Dynastic period they did so without a permanent presence in the region.
One of them, Eannatum, even described himself as the giant son of Ningirsu, who engendered him to fight for his cause. According to the Lagash accounts, the chief god Enlil in the distant past had demarcated the border between the two states running through the Gu'edena. T h e inscriptions acknowledge that the act had historically been performed by a king of Kish called Mesalim, who would have lived around 2600. Thus at that early time the two city-states already had competing claims and recourse to outside arbitration.