A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English by Eldon G. Lytle

By Eldon G. Lytle

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12 13 Chomsky, 1957, 101. See discussion regarding the structure of reference, pp. 81-83. 9) presented are at opposite extremes of the spectrum. On the one hand, we are unable to show how kernel structures can be rearranged transformationally without resulting in an anomalous distribution of envelope features. On the other hand, no one has shown how the vast Sememes Conceptual Surface Structures Structure Fig. 8. The DIRECT generation of syntactic structure is accomplished by base rules which join sememes into meaningful units.

12f) He hit me in the stomach (12g) Zero (0) is less than one (1). The reader is to construct for himself relative clauses for the nominals followed by a blank. It will be noted that the selection of a restrictive or a nonrestrictive modifier for these is by no means an arbitrary choice. In each case one feels constrained by context to select one over the other. Generally the selections for this set are: a. nonrestrictive; b. restrictive; c. restrictive; d. nonrestrictive; e. nonrestrictive; f.

Evidence to support these arguments is abundant. He offers, for example, sentences such as: (9a) My neighbor hurt himself. (9b) My neighbor hurt herself. (9c) My arm is bleeding. (9d) *The statue's arm is bleeding. Presupposition as to the sex of the referent of neighbor clarifies the form of the reflexive pronoun in (9a) and (9b). Otherwise, all human nouns would have to be further subcategorized by the rule: { + H u m a n } F e m a l e } . Sentence (9d) is semantically anomalous because of the presupposition that the intended referent is inanimate and cannot bleed, although it does have an arm.

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